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New 2-Methyl-13-Icosenoic Acid from the Temperate Calcisponge Leuconia johnstoni

TitleNew 2-Methyl-13-Icosenoic Acid from the Temperate Calcisponge Leuconia johnstoni
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2012
AuthorsQuevrain, E, Barnathan, G, Meziane, T, Domart-Coulon, I, Rabesaotra, V, Bourguet-Kondracki, M-L

The fatty acid composition of the temperate calcareous marine sponge Leuconia johnstoni Carter 1871 (Calcaronea, Calcarea) was characterized for the first time in specimens collected off the Brittany coast of France over four years from October 2005 to September 2008. Forty-one fatty acids (FA) with chain lengths ranging from C-14 to C-22 were identified as fatty methyl esters (FAME) and N-acyl pyrrolidide (NAP) derivatives by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Twenty-two saturated fatty acids (SFA) were identified accounting for 52.1-59.0% of the total FA and dimethylacetals (DMA). In addition, among the SFA, we noticed the presence of numerous methyl-branched iso and anteiso FA, suggesting a large number of associated bacteria within L. johnstoni. Thirteen monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA, 28.0-36.0% of total FA + DMA) were also identified as well as six polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, 4.0-8.2%). A noticeable DMA was detected at a high level, particularly in September 2008 (11.8%), indicating the presence of plasmalogens in this sponge species. This calcareous sponge lacked the non-methylene-interrupted FA (NMI FA) with a Delta 5,9 system typical of siliceous Demosponges and Hexactinellids. The occurrence of the unusual 8,13-octadecadienoic acid was reported for the first time as a minor PUFA in a calcareous sponge. The major FA, representing 20-25% of this sponge FA, was identified as the new 2-methyl-13-icosenoic acid from mass spectra of its methyl ester and its corresponding N-acyl pyrrolidide derivatives as well as a dimethyl disulfide adduct.