# The oyster sex determination is influenced by temperature – First clues in spat during first gonadic differenciation and gametogenesis.

 Title The oyster sex determination is influenced by temperature – First clues in spat during first gonadic differenciation and gametogenesis. Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2013 Authors Santerre, C, Sourdaine, P, Marc, N, Mingant, C, Robert, R, Martinez, A-S Journal Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Volume 165 Pagination 61–69 Abstract The sex-determining system of Crassostrea gigas is still poorly known, especially regarding the potential influence of temperature. In order to address this question, mRNA expressions of actors of the molecular cascade (Cg-DMl, Cg-SoxE, Cg-$\beta$-catenin, Cg-Foxl2/Cg-Foxl2os) and of Oyvlg, a germ cell marker, were investigated by real-time PCR in spat grown at different temperatures (18, 22, 25 and 28 °C). In parallel, gonadic differentiation, gametogenesis and sex ratios were assessed by histology at each of these temperatures. Whatever the temperature, Cg-DMl, Cg-SoxE, Cg-$\beta$-catenin and Oyvlg expressions peaked at the same developmental stage, always after Cg-Foxl2/Cg-Foxl2os (around 40–44 dpf for spat grown at 18 °C). Temperatures increased the kinetics of first gonadic differentiation and gametogenesis. At 25 °C a significant switch occurred in sex ratio towards males and in the balance of expression between male and female genes, in favor of males. A slight gametogenesis disturbance was also observed. These results strengthen the hypotheses about the sex-determining time window and molecular cascade governing the development of C. gigas, with notably the involvement of Cg-Foxl2/Cg-Foxl2os in the very early steps. They also suggest an influence of temperature on the oyster's sex determination which, associated to genetic control, would induce a mixed sex determination system (GSD + TSD). DOI 10.1016/j.cbpa.2013.02.007