|Physiological condition of the warty venus (Venus verrucosa L. 1758) larvae modulates response to pile driving and drilling underwater sounds
|Year of Publication
|Gigot, M, Tremblay, R, Bonnel, J, Chauvaud, L, Olivier, F
|Frontiers in Marine Science
|Anthropophony, energetic metabolism, fatty acids, larval recruitment, Metamorphosis trigger
Noise is now recognized as a new form of pollution in marine coastal habitats. The development of marine renewable energies has introduced new sonorous perturbations, as the wind farm installation requires pile driving and drilling operations producing low frequency sounds at high sound pressure levels. Exponential expansion of offshore wind farms is occurring worldwide, making impact studies, particularly on benthic species highly abundant and diverse in the coastal area used for wind farming, a necessity. As larval recruitment is the basis for establishing a population, we conducted an experimental study to assess the interactive effects of pile driving or drilling sounds and larval rearing temperature on the endobenthic bivalve Venus verrucosa. In ectothermic animals, temperature modifies the organism’s physiology, resulting in performance variability. We hypothesize that temperature modulation could change larval responses to noise and explore the potential interacting effects of temperature and noise. Using two distinct rearing temperatures, physiologically different batches of larvae were produced with contrasting fatty acid content and composition in the neutral and polar lipid fractions. Without defining any absolute audition threshold for the larvae, we demonstrate that the effects of temperature and noise were ontogenic-dependent and modulated larval performance at the peri-metamorphic stage, acting on the metamorphosis dynamic. At the pediveligers stage, a strong interaction between both factors indicated that the response to noise was highly related to the physiological condition of the larvae. Finally, we suggest that underwater noise reduces the compensatory mechanisms established to balance the temperature increase.
|Front. Mar. Sci.
Physiological condition of the warty venus (Venus verrucosa L. 1758) larvae modulates response to pile driving and drilling underwater sounds
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