|Titre||Development of a bioassay from isolated digestive gland cells of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis L. (Mollusca Cephalopoda): effect of Cu, Zn and Ag on enzyme activities and cell viability|
|Type de publication||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2004|
|Auteurs||Le Bihan, E, Perrin, A, Koueta-Noussithé, S|
|Journal||Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology|
The purpose of this study was to establish a bioassay from isolated digestive gland cells of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis in order to observe the effect of heavy metals on digestive enzyme activities. Digestive cells were isolated using a pronase enzyme that was removed by several washings of the cell suspension. Cell viability was tested by the MTT assay (3-4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium) and microscopic analysis. The results showed that isolated digestive cells could be maintained 24 h with preservation of whole digestive functionality, measured in terms of MTT test. In fact, the viability was maintained at a high level during 24 h and the intra- and extracellular digestive enzyme activities became stabilised rapidly. Furthermore, suspension cells responded to calcium ionophore and 8-Bromo-cAMP by an unspecific secretion of extracellular digestive enzyme, trypsin, which demonstrated that isolated digestive cells were functional. Using the bioassay, ecotoxicological studies showed that heavy metals could have effects on digestive enzyme activities after 24 h of an incubation time of the metal with the cells. In fact, zinc and silver affected trypsin and/or cathepsins specific activity of the cells. On the contrary, copper had no effect on digestive enzyme activities. Zinc, which is a trace element in all living animals, generated two different responses of cathepsins and cell viability. At a low concentration (0.02 $μ$M), it increased viability and cathepsins specific activity, whereas at a high concentration (0.02 mM), zinc inhibited the cathepsins specific activity with an inhibition of cathepsins. For silver, whatever the tested concentration (0.02 mM or 0.02 $μ$M), it has no impact on digestive gland isolated cell viability. Nevertheless, heavy metal induced high disturbance of enzymatic systems.