|Title||Short-term bioaccumulation, circulation and metabolism of estradiol-17$\beta$ in the oyster Crassostrea gigas|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2005|
|Authors||Le Curieux-Belfond, O, Fievet, B, Seralini, G-E, Mathieu, M|
|Journal||Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology|
Steroids are active signal transmitters in Vertebrates. These roles have also been hypothesized in other Phyla and endocrine disrupting effects have been reported for different estrogen-like compounds in fishes and some marine invertebrates. As estradiol-17$\beta$ has shown some physiological activities in the oyster and as estrogens or estrogen-like molecules can be present in water, we have investigated the bioaccumulation and metabolism of this estrogen in vivo in the oyster Crassostrea gigas. When dissolved in seawater, in less than 48 h estradiol-17$\beta$ concentrated up to 31 times in the soft tissues of the suspension-feeder mollusc. Injected in the adductor muscle, estradiol-17$\beta$ circulated from muscle to the gonad, the gills, the mantle, the labial palps, and to a lesser extent to the digestive gland. After 2 h, estradiol flow increased specifically towards this gland. Different hypotheses were raised concerning the circulation paths. However, in all cases estradiol metabolism primarily evidenced an in vivo transformation into estrone in the whole oyster and in its digestive gland. This strong 17$\beta$-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase activity confirms our previous in vitro results. In conclusion, it is proposed that oyster is able to take in charge estradiol as a potential contaminant in seawater. Therefore, its bioaccumulation and transformation into estrone could be studied as potential biomarkers of endocrine disruption. Furthermore, the experimental approach with dissolved steroids in the seawater combined to an anatomical screening appears as an interesting tool to investigate the bivalve endocrinology.